What is Periodontitis? Causes – Diagnosis – Treatment – CARDS DENTAL

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what is periodontitis

Periodontitis is an infection of the gums and possibly jaws, which can cause permanent jaw damage and lead to tooth loss. Untreated Periodontitis has been linked to increased risk for conditions such as heart disease, stroke, low birth weight babies, preterm delivery, respiratory disease, and prostate cancer. In advanced stages, periodontitis can lead to sore, bleeding gums; painful chewing problems; and even tooth loss.

Gingivitis vs Periodontitis

Gingivitis (gum inflammation) usually comes before Periodontitis (gum disease). In its early stages,  gingivitis can have increased plaque, which causes the gums to become inflamed and to easily bleed during tooth brushing. No permanent damage, to either bone or tissue, has occurred at this stage. However, if it is left untreated, it can lead to Periodontitis.

Once it advances to Periodontitis, the inside layer of gum and bone pull away from the teeth. Inside these spaces, there can be food impactions, leading to infections. Plaque starts to form below the gum. As Periodontitis progresses, the connective tissues that hold the teeth in their place start to get broken from different toxins. Hence, this disease can lead to tooth loss.


  1. Halitosis
  2. Swollen and tender gums
  3. Loose teeth, or teeth that have shifted
  4. Sensitive teeth
  5. Pus around the teeth
  6. Painful chewing
  7. Bleeding gums

Risk Factors

  1. Plaque
  2. Smoking
  3. Diabetes
  4. Hormonal Changes
  5. Medications that reduce saliva
  6. Illnesses like AIDS, and their medications
  7. Genetics


The dentist will examine your gums for any inflammation around the teeth. If any spaces have started to form because of the gum peeling away from your teeth, the dentist will also measure those with his ruler (called a probe). In a healthy mouth, the depth is usually considered to be 1 to 3 mm. They will also examine your previous medical history to see if anything corresponds from there.

After this, the dentist might require X-Rays just to check for any bone losses, and if it is really serious, he/she might refer you to a periodontist, who are the gum experts.


  1. Brushing and flossing to remove any plaque
    1. If any hardened plaque is formed, then a professional cleaning will be required
  2. Possible surgery if the disease is highly advanced
  3. Following care plans given by the periodontists or dentists


  1. No smoking
  2. Brushing your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste
  3. Flossing regularly to remove plaque within two teeth
  4. Visiting the dentist regularly


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Author Since:  September 18, 2018


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